Because your abstract will be published in Masters Abstracts International or in Dissertation Abstracts International , please write and proofread it carefully. When possible, avoid including symbols or foreign words in your abstract, as they cannot be indexed or searched. Avoid mathematical formulas, diagrams, and other illustrative materials in the abstract. Offer a brief description of your thesis or dissertation and a concise summary of its conclusions. Be sure to describe the subject and focus of your work with clear details and avoid including lengthy explanations or opinions.
Footnotes are indicated by superscript numbers in the text. They may be placed at the foot of each page or at the end of each chapter. Footnotes at the bottom of the page may be numbered either beginning with 1 on each page or consecutively throughout a chapter. When footnotes are used, the bibliography includes all references cited in the notes (and additional sources) and is arranged alphabetically. Footnotes may be typed in a smaller size than the text or in the same size; they are usually single-spaced with a double space between notes.